Costs and Rewards ; 13. Granted that the primary material gathered here has made a valuable contribution to the field, it is still pertinent to consider whether the comparative approach yielded better results than two separate monographs. Again, the picture they paint is very complex and varied, but overall their conclusions confirm the received view of the interdependence of sovereign and noble e. Life in Wartime ; 6. Not only were poor harvests, famine, heavy wartime taxes, and unemployment creating misery among the poor, but radicalism threatened the very stability of the state. The E-mail message field is required. Rooted in the writings of Malthus, their proposals proved ultimately impracticable.
Nobles at War ; 10. On 5 April 1877, The Times reported an episode from the Dorset Quarter Sessions. In the 1910s, some of Rio de Janeiro's most renowned intellectuals and philanthropists, known as the reformers, launched proposals for offering assistance to the poor, drawn in part from the debate then underway in Europe about alternative ways of fighting poverty. Edsall and Knott's conclusions are echoed by many others, including Anthony Brundage, David Englander, Alan Kidd and Anne Crowther, all of whom allude to Welsh resistance in passing within broader studies of the New Poor Law and its institutions, but fail to look more deeply into the evidence Brundage 1978: 147; Englander 1998: 29; Kidd 1999: 30;. There are myriad details for anyone interested in early modern society and not just in war. In their third section, which is devoted to the nobles, they explore the military resources of the nobility, their role as commanders, the costs and reward it brought them both in financial terms and by way of power and authority.
For English historians, an added advantage of this comparison is that it puts England back into an European context by showing the simularities and differences between the two countries' experiences. A host of factors affected the outcome. This is a timely challenge, following trends in European historiography stressing the persistence of household structures and ritual at the heart of the early modern state, as well as recent detailed studies of Asian courts. Peace, not war, brought religious crisis in the Netherlands, while in England religious change was used to justify war p. They link this to the continuing reliance of the English crown on 'national' recruitment as opposed to foreign and non-subject troops. War and Noble Identity ; 15.
As in the case of towns, the authors accept that it is not possible to distinguish in most cases the precise impact of war on nobles, since, 'at every turn war service blended into other aspects of service to the prince' p. The analysis questions middle-class ideas about the parenting of poor families, the economic motives behind emigration, and introduces a number of case studies to evaluate whether emigration achieved its goal of leading children towards a respectable life away from the city. The authors note the decline of the 'quasi-feudal' system and trace the greater reliance on 'national' recruitment, especially in England, which was often mediated through urban authorities but sometimes also through nobles. The introduction to the fourth and final section on subjects, specifically invokes its determination to shed light on 'state formation' p. They endorse his identification of four primary elements making up the state: fiscal-military, patriarchal, confessional and dynastic, and restate his belief that state power develops in each area at different speeds and for different reasons p. The reader is left to work out from the details offered on each of them why these rather than others were chosen. The wider interactions of subjects and rulers in wartime are reviewed to measure how effectively war extended princes' claims on their subjects' loyalty and service, their ambitions to control news and opinion and to promote national identity, and their ability to manage the economy and harness religious change to dynastic purposes.
It argues that although women were barred from participation in the public sphere by patriarchal notions of 'reason' and 'independence,' charitable associations offered political schooling wherein women internalized and problematized 'publicness. Elliott is surely right that 'even imperfect comparisons can help to shake historians out of their provincialism', and that this approach can result in provoking new questions and perspectives. The authors are to be praised for not shying away from an honest reporting of their findings. Towns at War ; 4. All the states of early modern Europe - and this includes England - were extraordinarily diverse, and given the level of knowledge we have, further monographs, be they regional or state-wide, are necessary before comparative works can be effective. It is evident from these data that war frequently divided urban areas, as different sectors were diversely affected by tax and other demands. Military Institutions and Fiscal Growth ; 3.
Military Institutions and Fiscal Growth ; 3. In the first place, all rulers needed loyal agents, yet could not easily guarantee their loyalty over time. Life in Wartime ; 6. These criteria were applied also to charities which were active in providing for those with disabilities. It is not hard to imagine the attraction of this project for scholars and funding bodies. It is evident from the start that their conclusion will be that its impact was both positive and negative in terms of 'the state'. The Military Resources of the Nobility ; 11.
In so far as they had a model in mind it was David Potter's study on Picardy pp. The article interrogates in detail the workings of the affiliation system in Southwark and Lambeth in terms of the proportion of fathers and mothers who paid maintenance for their children, either in lump sums or in weekly allowances, plus the associated costs of childbirth and legal fees, the range of weekly sums, which could be higher than previously thought, and the duration for which they were paid, which could be surprisingly long. The authors set out to do a comparative study of war and society in two different, but comparable polities, England and the Netherlands, helping to undermine the unnatural, if traditional, division between early modern English and 'European' historians. The court was a main theatre where this tension could be solved or exacerbated. Webpage created 15-01-2012, last updated 21-01-2012. The lesson they took particularly to heart from this was that war was a two-way process, both helping to integrate the province to the French state and causing tensions that nurtured civil war.
Trotz seiner Jugend, er wurde 1567 geboren, erwies er sich als ein talentierter Heerführer, der, zusammen mit seinem Neffen und Schwager Wilhelm Ludwig von Nassau, dem Statthalter von Friesland, versuchte, den Krieg nach wissenschaftlichen Prinzipien zu führen. At the start of the period the Netherlands are still very much a collection of countries under the shadow of Burgundy; at the end of the period it's unified under the Hapsburgs, mostly during the reign of Charles V. While declaring themselves contrary to adopting a 'sweeping overview' approach - as well as a limited one - they do not inform the reader at the outset what their approach is or why it is superior. The Crusade against Outrelief of the 1870s marked a major shift in administration and the increased use of workhouse relief. What emerges here is not a model but an abundance of often contradictory data.
This article focuses on the experience of children admitted to the Refuge and subsequently emigrated from one of its orphan homes. There are brief comments p. Clearly patterns varied greatly, but the divergences should not be fitted unthinkingly into a grand narrative based on the rise of the west. Polities at War ; 2. Nobles in Command ; 12.
These arguments needed deeper and more detailed development to be convincing. Contents: War and the state -- Polities at war -- Military institutions and fiscal growth -- Towns at war -- Introduction -- Urban military resources -- Life during wartime -- War and urban government -- Towns in the polity -- War, towns, and the state -- Nobles at war -- Introduction -- The military resources of the nobility -- Nobles in command -- Costs and rewards -- War and noble power -- War and noble identity -- War, nobles, and the state -- Subjects at war -- Introduction -- Obligations -- Information and response -- The trials of war -- War and identity -- War, subjects, and the state -- Conclusion -- War, state, and society. The preface further acknowledges the support of a glittering array of scholars, not least Geoffrey Parker who read through the entire draft. From organising provisions to the command of provinces, fortifications and armies, the crown relied on them and this in turn helped 'to preserve and develop noble power' p. Grundlage dafür waren einmal die Bindung spanischer Truppen an andere Kriegsschauplätze infolge militärischer Auseinandersetzungen mit England und Frankreich und zum anderen militärische Erfolge der Niederländer, deren oberster militärischer Befehlshaber seit 1589 Prinz Moritz von Oranien war.