I found it natural to speculate about thepsychology of his personality, and how psychological disturbance canbe obscured or excused in a society which values and applauds highintellectual functioning. This approach to therapy gives precedence towhich not why phenomena occur; this focus leaves scant time nopun intended for philosophical deliberation nor transpersonal func-tioning unless it has a direct and observable bearing on a consideredand desired result. Although considered one of the best-known thinkers in the field,Wilber is not the only theorist to give a definition that encompasses theenormity of the field of transpersonal psychology. Clarkson 2002 recognizes this and notes that, Where priests or religious people are trained as psychotherapists,they may practice any brand-name of psychotherapy Jungian,Psychosynthesis, Core energetics, transactional analysis or whatever. Having briefly examined the transpersonal from a religiousperspective, and highlighted the potential for confusion and misunder-standing that can arise when examining the two fields, I wish to returnto the psychological standpoint. Hillman 1997a , however, the founder of Archetypal psychology,though regarded as a Jungian bases much of his thinking within anotherphilosophical lineage which he sees clearly as not being influenced bytranspersonal theory. Now, though, I will once againconcentrate upon the place of research into transpersonal psychology.
He concentrates on the use of neur-oleptics and psychedelics. Regardless of why research method may be taking a more obvious rolein the whole field of psychology, the transpersonal therapies will haveto do the same if they want to be accepted in the prevailing political andscientific milieu. For a concisereview of differing traditions of Christian spiritual direction seeByrne 1990. Whichare also accepted as providing the only means to test and create phar-macological research, as well as being utilized by all the fields that go tomake up the field of human biology. However, we must be careful not to confuse intentionality withother philosophical concepts.
In conclusion, thissplateral melange of conjectures, models, assumptions, hypotheses andthe lived experience of many offered a field that could be seen to providea whole which was greater than the sum of its parts. The second bias my proclivity to view philosophers themselvesin psychopathological terms was highlighted, for instance, whenthinking about Foucaults life. Combining insights from his early life and his wide-ranging intellectual interests in philosophy, mysticism and parapsychology, Ann Casement traces the development of Jung's ideas on the functioning of the human mind, including the origins of core Jungian concepts such as archetypes, teleology, alchemy and the collective unconscious. Yet, we need to look further back in time to see the roots of what wasto become this fourth force or transpersonal approach to psychology. A case for when as well ashow to adopt a transpersonal perspective is also given consideration,with recognition that a transpersonal element can be included by clini-cians that practice withinmodels that may not traditionally look beyondego functioning and interpersonal dynamics. We begin providing an overview of existential training implemented in China and use this to extrapolate lessons about a culturally sensitive approach to international psychology. However, because of theinsistence that there is a realm of spirituality the noetic that is beyondboth the psychological and the physiological, I place it firmly in thetranspersonal school.
As a respected and well-known member of the British psychoanalyticcommunity it comes as no surprise to see his influence in the work ofothers. If the data appear to be organized in key concepts and themes, qual-itative content or thematic analysis applies. Yet, whilst recognizing that researching withinthe whole field of psychology may require a multimethod approach,transpersonal inquiry could be regarded as being a field that is noless suited to methods of observation and experimentation, a posi-tion that is similar to many other areas of psychological inquiry. I feel that entering the debate about how, if at all, Freudian thinkingfits into a recognized criterion for science would not shed further lightupon the place of transpersonal psychology in the second force, regard-less of the fact that the psychoanalytic school has been a powerfulinfluence both from within and upon the whole field of psychologysince near its first inception. Returning to the philosophy and underpinnings of transpersonalpsychology and with all the above in mind, I was aware that an in-depthexploration of the whole field of philosophy is not within the remit ofthis work. Looking towardstranspersonal theory, he splits the various models into two groups: thosethat can be considered as being situated within and looking towardsexperiences that are immanent and those that are better described bybeing transcendent.
Regardless of semantic debate, within the medical profession it isnot only bodies such as the American Psychiatric Association and theRoyal College of Psychiatrists who identify the need to understand andrecognize the relationship between an individuals experience and prac-tice of religious belief and psychological health. The questioners eyes glaze over with therapists hmm hmmsc. Clearly, the rationale for this is that symptom reduc-tion leading to normal functioning is regarded as paramount for thisapproach. A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress. Maslow is arguably best known for his hierarchy of needs model, which has found its way into mainstream thinking. His reasoning argues thatpsychotic breaks and mystical states both present symptoms that couldbe seen as a retreat from outer to inner reality.
Shealy Chair , International humanistic psychology: Implications and applications for research and practice. They took 40 definitions that had appeared within the literature between 1969 and 1991. Assagioli 1993 , pursued an active interest in the transper-sonal and its relationship to psychotherapy. The Jungian perspective, instead, seesa movement towards the religious, spiritual or transpersonal as natural. Philo-sophers such as Underhill 2001 , who is recognized as still providingthe seminal inquiry into mysticism, wrote of the importance of thetranspersonal. It examines the work of newer and established transpersonal theorists and the influence that the transpersonal perspective has had upon the major schools of psychology. According to Jewish thinking,within the Kabala a map can be found that charts and gives terminologyto inner states and transpersonal realms.
The work of the founders of the school and newer transpersonal theories are examined as well as the influence that the transpersonal perspective has had upon the major schools of psychology. Unfortunately, oftenthe what-is and the what-is-not are one and the same, though viewedfrom differing angles. Some thinkers go further when regarding the importance that philo-sophical enquiry can play in helping individuals experience psycho-logical well-being. Spiritual development can be achieved by adopting an enlight- ening doctrine, or by discipleship to an enlightened Master. However, the search for and understanding of the spirituality aspectof transpersonal thinking is an area that has not received as muchattention, though other disciplines such as religious studies havespent considerable effort in the exploration of spirituality.
I address thisconcept in the fourth section. Singer 1983 gives Jung the credit of introducing the term transpersonal inthe field of psychology ueberpersonliche as early as 1917. This couldinclude those who are unable to find or maintain a coherent senseof their own self-identity, or defence mechanisms against being over-whelmed by their own feelings of aggression, or alternatives to exper-iencing a profound sense of inadequacy. With its emphasis uponexploring real and imagined relationships there is the possibility tomovebeyond gaining insight regarding the influence of sexual and aggressivedrives, instead an individuals relationship with their real or imaginedexperience of the transpersonal can be included within the therapeuticencounter. Overall, the work is intended to give an overview of the field and itsapplication, as well as revealing how the transpersonal is viewed fromthemajor schools of psychology. A case for when as well as how to adopt a transpersonal perspective is also given consideration, with recognition that a transpersonal element can be included by clini- cians that practice within models that may not traditionally look beyond ego functioning and interpersonal dynamics.
Moreover, both fields can be seen to share similarities in their heritage. Finally, before moving beyond an exploration of definitions for the field, I think it is worth noting that Hutton 1994 uses a differing approach to understand what transpersonal psychotherapy is. Notsurprisingly, this off-the-cuff response never seems to be enough, andcommonly leads onto many more questions, ones that whilst seeking adeeper elaboration, reveal the questioners theoretical assumptions andtheir beliefs, not just about the helping professions, but also their under-standing of the world. Both seek to imbed MartinHeideggers philosophical ontology within a psychotherapeutic modelthat concentrates upon the phenomenological aspect of the humancondition within a psychotherapeutic praxis. By far the mostcommonly used approach is by means of qualitative methodology, withsome form of questionnaire being utilized. Buddhisttheory would propose that individuals will become psychologicallyvulnerable to the extent to which they identify with their self-imageand to the extent to which the self-image serves to overshadow thefull range of personal experience.
This strongly suggests that increased temporallobe activity will have an effect upon emotion and memory. I do not feel that embarking upon a full-scale exploration of the rela-tionship of religious experiences, religionwith transpersonal experiencesand transpersonal disciplines is called for in the confines of this study. Here phenomena includeexperiences that are familiar to the psychological discourse found almostuniversally within all models, such as death, failure and love. Lyons 1999 , for instance, addresses one aspect of the transpersonalstates, The transpersonal movement has the intention of making senseof experiences, which traditionally would have been called religious. And this may account for the lack of research and consequently liter-ature that addresses transpersonal awareness and functioning within thefirst force. Sufism The esoteric tradition of the Islamic faith Sufism is another religioustradition that places an emphasis upon the transpersonal. These then lead onto even more questions, and for thepolite or genuinely interested, they can take three different directions: a.