Following this approach, Stephanie Steinmetz provides a comprehensive overview of the development and causes of cross-national differences in occupational sex segregation. Experts realize that company growth can no longer be achieved by taking a conventional approach, but few follow through with introducing new frameworks that change the way diversity is treated. Educational specialization and labour market risks of men and women in Spain and Germany. Williams, Muhammad Yunus, and Luigi Zingales. Multiple options and qualitative differences between courses and institutions puts the onus on students and parents to make correct career decisions - if students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds are found more often in less prestigious educational pathways, then prestigious higher level institutions are likely to remain exclusive. Moreover, an effect of educational system characteristics on the gender gap in the level of educational expectations has not been observed McDaniel, 2009. For women, relative economic power is seen as varying-and not always in the same direction-at a variety of micro- and macrolevels, ranging from the household to the state.
Therefore, comparative research cannot simply focus upon full-timers if it is to develop an adequate interpretation of trends in segregation and the labour-market outcomes for women. . Using largely accounts of more than hundred interviewed people, the author shows vividly how, in post-communist societies, the contradictions of capitalism are interlaced with the mostly negative relics of communism. Policy makers, for example, will be largely concerned to establish 'what works' in particular contexts, and will be less troubled as to whether or not their theories are universally applicable. Gender-specific segregation of occupations has remained a typical characteristic of contemporary labour markets.
The author clarifies that a distinct set of institutional factors is relevant to each of the two dimensions of occupational sex segregation and that these factors operate in different directions: some reduce horizontal segregation while at the same time aggravating the vertical aspect. We further suggest that this gender gap will widen in societies with more highly sex-segregated labor markets. The author clarifies that a distinct set of institutional factors is relevant to each of the two dimensions of occupational sex segregation and that these factors operate in different directions: some reduce horizontal segregation while at the same time aggravating the vertical aspect. New York: Aldine de Gruyter. Questions as to the form in which industrialisation occurred, which societal class dominated the transformation process culturally, and whether there was a cultural continuity or discontinuity, are important for cross-national differences in the family model and for the labour market behaviour of women today. This paper investigates the impact of gender differences in tertiary education, i.
This study contributes to the debate by asking whether women in gender-atypical occupations are also similarly disadvantaged when using contacts as a source of job information; and if so, in what ways do contacts matter? Examines the relationship between the occupational distributions of men and women in 25 industrial countries and selected social, economic, and cultural factors. Modern societies are affected by various processes of social change, like the increase of formal education, the shift of demographic structures and the structural change of work. Scott, Tyson Smith, Margaret Talbot, Louise A. Is the web a promising tool for data collection in developing countries? The dualism translated into a mechanical view of the person and to continued separation of functions of mind and hand. As devaluation trends have empirically been limited so far, tertiary level qualifications similarly continue to provide a most attractive inroad into the upper segments of the occupational structure. To answer these questions, we use a model with fixed effects to predict the earnings of young men and women from a pooled cross-section time-series of the National Longitudinal Survey.
The objective of this paper is to integrate class, citizenship and gender in a comparative approach to the analysis of welfare state regimes. To test our assumption, we compare individual school-to-work transitions in Switzerland and Bulgaria, with the vocational principle being more prevalent in the structuring of Swiss educational offers. The impact of working time and wages on retention in the health workforce. On this basis, a substantial decline in occupational segregation is predicted for the 1990s, with a consequential impact on the male-female earnings gap. Following this approach, Stephanie Steinmetz provides a comprehensive overview of the development and causes of cross-national differences in occupational sex segregation. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Moving into the competitive sector depresses chances for wage gains, while moving out of this sector brings gains. As indicated at the beginning of this study, increasing egalitarian principles in society as well as the post-industrial restructuring of labour markets have offered women access to both the educational system and paid labour. Analysing Patterns in Occupational Segregation by Gender. Erikson and Goldthorpe 1992 , welfare state development and reform e. This study examines the intergenerational transmission of two gender attitudes gender role ideology and work role identity.
While both biological and ideological variables are taken into account, the emphasis is structural: It is proposed that the major independent variable affecting sexual inequality is each sex's economic power, understood as relative control over the means of production and allocation of surplus. The author clarifies that a distinct set of institutional factors is relevant to each of the two dimensions of occupational sex segregation and that these factors operate in different directions: some reduce horizontal segregation while at the same time aggravating the vertical aspect. Brückner, Hannah, Mayer, Karl Ulrich. Anxo, Dominique, Fagan, Colette, Cebrian, Inmaculada, Moreno, Gloria. Analyses are undertaken for both blacks and whites. The chapter also elaborates the impact on mobility patterns of the turbulent political, social, and economic history of twentieth-century Germany that probably explains the difference between the findings of the period and cohort perspectives. They are also useful for contrasting family benefits that are provided through direct cash transfers with those that take the form of support for mothers' employment.
However, less attention has been devoted to the empirical evidence of educational institutions and family policies. Distinguishing between horizontal segregation and inequalities in vertical outcomes, we discuss theoretical perspectives on gender differences in the first job. Data from 15,742 employees in 22 European countries provide strong support for these claims. We call attention to implications stemming from manifestations at distinct levels of analysis, specifically to the differential structural positions that men and women are likely to occupy as employees and to the degree of sex-based labor market segregation in a country overall. Handl, Johann, and Stephanie Steinmetz 2007 : Lessons from social mobility research: could the index discussion in occupational sex segregation benefit?. A clear and significant increase of social fluidity, however, is found when analysing the mobility patterns of cohorts born between 1920 and 1969.
With respect to vertical segregation, particularly a country's average childcare coverage is important for the explanation of cross-national variation. Scandinavia has had the record of the highest employment rates among women in the industrialized world, which has traditionally been explained by Scandinavian countries' particular political-institutional models. Human Resources for Health, 11, 11. Evertsson, Marie, England, Paula, Mooi-Reci, Irma, Hermsen, Joan, de Bruijn, Jeanne, Cotter, David. General observations about these issues from scientific and journalistic publications are interspersed with the authors' first-hand experience and their conclusions on these. Thus in Durkheims' comparative sociology for example, Suicide 1952 , concomitant variation or correlation is used as an 'indirect experiment' in order to establish permanent social scientific cause or laws Ragin and Zaret 1983 736.