At the same time, the world has increasingly scrutinized China's economic policies and activities. The Handbook is a major reference work for scholars researching the causes of success and failure in international business in Asia. Complementing the country chapters are eleven contributions examining major themes across the region in comparative perspective and linking the empirical picture to existing theory on these themes. Special chapters cover inclusive urbanisation and reforms for a healthier environment. Fall in agricultural employment in East Asian countries and regions; Figure 15. Off-budget borrowing by entity and the stock of off-budget debt; Figure 4.
The book also examines the timely issues related to China's recent efforts in promoting the use of its currency in the global financial market. The challenge for policymakers is to ensure a smooth transition of demand, while maintaining supports that promote growth and employment. China's current reform and modernization policies to convert its centrally planned economy towards a market-driven one could hardly draw on experiences of other countries. The special chapters cover boosting firm performance and entrepreneurship; enhancing inclusiveness. Migrants' wages have increased briskly in recent years; Figure 10.
The special chapters cover boosting firm performance and entrepreneurship; enhancing inclusiveness. It begins with a brief history of the modern China's foreign exchange rate policy. The edition provides a comprehensive analysis of recent developments, policies, and prospects in China. China's market share is no longer expanding as rapidly; Figure 8. As a result, the field has yet to produce a detailed empirical picture of the institutional structures of most Asian nations and to explore to what extent existing theory applies to the Asian context.
The book features special chapters covering fiscal policy and sustainable long-term growth. Contents: Table of contents; Basic statistics of China; Executive summary; Main findings; Macroeconomic developments and prospects; Selected reform areas; Key policy recommendations; Macrostructural policies; Financial sector reform; Competition and innovation; Inclusive urbanisation; Intergovernmental fiscal relations; Greening growth; Assessment and recommendations; China continues to advance; Table 1. Spending on research and development; Further financial sector reforms are underway. To aid comparison, each country chapter follows the same consistent outline. Growth accounting; The economy will gradually slow but high growth can be maintained for some time; Figure 12.
Composition of financing flowsFigure 19. Growth pathways in selected East Asian economies. Human capital is catching up; Figure 17. At the same time, the report points out where additional reform is needed. Investment is high but the capital stock per employee is still low in China; Figure 16. Continued migration of labour from agriculture will support productivity growthFigure 13.
Infrastructure and other investment; Figure 5. Special chapters cover inclusive urbanisation and reforms for a healthier environment. Evidence of de facto capital account convertibility; Figure 20. The Oxford Handbook of Asian Business Systems aims to address this imbalance by exploring the shape and consequences of institutional variations across the political economies of different societies within Asia. Inequality is high but declining; Figure 6. General government revenue and expenditure.
This book provides a succinct and up-to-date account of China's exchange rate policy including the currency undervaluation debate and the internationalization of its currency. Social spending by the national government has grown sharply; The export sector has been under strain but rebalancing has made headway; Box 2. China sails through the crisis; Policy stimulus gave rise to imbalances; Figure 2. The major themes of the report include improving the framework for the private sector, labour market reforms, ageing, and reform of the public sector and the financial system. A comparison of the state and private industrial sector; Expanding research and development; Box 5. Drawing on the deep knowledge of 31 leading experts, this book presents an empirical, comparative institutional analysis of 13 major Asian business systems between India and Japan. The concluding chapters spell out the implications of all these chapters for scholars in the field and for business practitioners in Asia.
Urbanisation and level of income worldwide. . One of the hotly contested issues is China's foreign exchange rate policy. Official foreign exchange reserves; Box 4. The economy slowed down but a recovery is under wayFigure 9. A further three chapters provide perspectives on the influence of history and institutional change. Most indicators of inequality have declined somewhat in recent years; Figure 7.